I recently read a couple of articles that I thought were poignant and related. (Special thanks, here, to Gleb_Tsipursky for bringing them to my attention via Twitter.) The articles come from CNN’s “Subject Matters” column, by Sally Holland, and Insider Higher Ed’s guest editorial, “Sorry”, by Stephen Brockmann.
Read the articles by clicking on the links below:
“Subject Matters: Why students fall behind on history,” Sally Holland, CNN.com
“Sorry,” Stephen Brockman, InsideHigherEd.com
These two articles are both talking about the struggle within our society to engage our young citizenry in history (and the humanities) and the vacuum of cultural illiteracy that has developed in recent years. The two articles point to different causes, but they are addressing the same effect.
Western Civilization has certain traditions and assumptions that inform our society; these influence our legal system, political system, moral and ethical codes and educational approaches. It differs significantly from other traditions; it has flaws both historically and currently; it often neglects other societies and traditions or looks down upon them. It is also the culture from which we emerged. Learning about our civilization’s heritage is also a means for acknowledging its shortcomings and provides a stable platform from which to contrast alternate traditions.
Unfortunately, however, traditions that are not passed on from one generation to the next die. If an entire generation grows up largely unexposed to a particular tradition, then that tradition can in essence be said to be dead, because it is no longer capable of reproducing itself. It does not matter whether the tradition in question is imagined as the Western tradition, the Christian tradition, or the Marxist tradition (and of course both Christianity and Marxism are part of the Western tradition). Traditions are like languages: if they are not passed on, they die. Most traditions, of course, have good and bad elements in them (some might argue for Christianity, some for Marxism, relatively few for both), and what dies when a tradition dies is therefore often both good and bad, no matter what one’s perspective. But what also dies with a tradition is any possibility of self-critique from within the tradition (in the sense that Marxism, for instance, constituted a self-critique from within the Western tradition), since a tradition’s self-critique presupposes the existence of the tradition. Therefore the death of a tradition is not just the death of the oppression and tyranny that might be associated with the tradition, but also the death of progressive and liberating impulses within the tradition.
~ Stephen Brockmann
Teachers in high school and middle school notice the problems at a young age. Students do not retain material, nor do they make necessary connections between time and space as they learn. We have moved away from memorization drills, which seems to lead to a greater enjoyment, but, while it opens the door for greater opportunities in developing thought processes, there clearly are problems with retention and cognition. On top of this, students seem to have a lower common-denominator of shared knowledge which requires more teaching than the curriculum may assume necessary.
At Caprock High School in Amarillo, Texas, teacher Jeff Frazer said he’s surprised by how many of his incoming students know that the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776 but don’t know that it was a list of grievances against Great Britain.
“I think they learn information by itself, in isolation,” Frazer said of his students. “But putting the big picture together is not happening.”
And during the comparative religions unit at Rutland Middle School in Rutland, Vermont, Ted Lindgren regularly asks students, “What is Easter about?”
He said they invariably bring up the Easter bunny but don’t know the significance of the holiday to Christianity. It shows a lack of cultural literacy, Lindgren said, that they have to compensate for during class.
~ Sally Holland
The field’s potential impact on how we think is itself born out of Western Civilization’s traditions. This is relevant not only to cultural literacy but cultural fluency and is an important asset for one’s ability to participate in our cultural institutions–not least in our participatory-based political system. As Brockmann says, we fail to adequately learn even its shortcomings or to understand precisely how this tradition and society contrasts with others. Without the ability to learn about our own past and its own strangeness and differences we will fail trying to learn about other cultures and traditions. This also leads to failure in progressive attempts to break from the supposed tyranny of Western Civilization and create a successful inclusive curriculum. As Sam Wineburg has written in his explanations of historical thinking as a curriculum goal, lacking engagement with our own culture’s foreign attributes will necessarily stunt our ability to deal with the contemporary foreign cultures around us with which we are in ever-increasing contact.
What’s the cause of the current set of circumstances?
Holland’s article focuses on the perspective that is twofold: on the one hand, the amount of content is overwhelming for teachers and, aided by crummy textbooks, often reduced to trivia; on the other hand, history has been deemphasized in schools at an ever-younger level because it is not part of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) testing. Even in cases where state-mandated tests exist, there is often a large gap between the testing and the period of learning.
World history teacher Troy Hammon of Arsenal Technical High School in Indianapolis, Indiana, said he is constantly weighing how much “trivia” he teaches, like names, dates and places, and when to try to help his students relive history.
For example, Hammon had his students take on the roles of individuals who may have taken part in the Crusades of the Middle Ages. The students then answered questions based on their knowledge of that time. Hammon believes this helps his students better understand the Middle Ages.
“History grows every year, no matter what,” said Jennifer Kravitz, who teaches world history, civics and economics at Rutland High School in Vermont. “So with this ever-expanding content, teachers are trying to balance teaching history content with helping students learn the essential skills they are going to need.”
~ Sally Holland
The resources provided to teachers at the secondary level emphasize “facts” but not thinking. (I actually open classes by telling my students that we will not be studying facts, but interpretations of sources–hopefully reliable sources.) Even so, the challenge of retention and engagement remains.
Brockmann opens his discussion much earlier than NCLB with the cultural wars in the 1980s. He argues that these were not only counter-productive to either group’s goals, they also gutted the humanities of its respectability and dignity in the minds of the general public. It created the image of the liberal arts as a bastard child in the academic arena, subordinate to more vocational majors such as business, which is a completely topsy-turvy understanding of education and its roots in Western Civilization.
A quarter of a century later, with the humanities in crisis across the country and students and parents demanding ever more pragmatic, ever more job-oriented kinds of education, the curricular debates of the 1980s over courses about Western civilization and the canon seem as if they had happened on another planet, with completely different preconceptions and assumptions than the ones that prevail today. We now live in a radically different world, one in which most students are not forced to take courses like Western civilization or, most of the time, in foreign languages or cultures, or even the supposedly more progressive courses that were designed to replace them. And whereas as late as the 1980s English was the most popular major at many colleges and universities, by far the most popular undergraduate major in the country now is business.
The battle between self-identified conservatives and progressives in the 1980s seems increasingly like rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. While humanists were busy arguing amongst themselves, American college students and their families were turning in ever-increasing numbers away from the humanities and toward seemingly more pragmatic, more vocational concerns.
~ Stephen Brockmann
What is lost? Perhaps it is irrelevant to you that America’s children are limited in their thinking about Easter to a basket full of candy and gifts delivered by the Easter bunny, but it is a tragedy regardless of whether those children are raised as Christians. This reflects an unfortunate reordering of our values and mores–and I am not insisting on a Christian society, here. The questions are broader than religion or life viewed through a religion’s perspective. How do business courses prepare students for the cultural interactions of the modern world? How do they replace philosophy courses that ask us how to think about how best we should live? By what means do they teach the next generation to communicate, argue and understand rhetoric? In fact, business schools must add such tangential courses to their programs because they recognize that their students are not getting a well-rounded education beyond the major.
How is it solved?
Indeed, how? It requires a re-commitment to our society’s roots, even if we dispute the value of it’s ideals and practices. It is not necessary to glorify it, but it is necessary to learn it. We cannot possibly expect students to understand the conflicts that exist today or the necessity for self-education and participation in the community and civics without some grounding in what got us here–and I understand this to extend beyond our Founding Fathers, just as they looked beyond their British heritage in the founding of a new American civilization. The value of testing-based education has been questioned long before NCLB and the idea that a multiple choice test can adequately evaluate a student’s ability to think historically is, naturally, absurd.
Brockmann believes that we have truly lost something, which is why he entitles his op-ed, “Sorry”. Holland’s teachers appear to have few answers as well, though their myopic concern about NCLB and state testing requirements smells like a scapegoat. Naturally, students‘ lives have changed from the 1980s–not just their habits and activities, but also the way their brains develop as a result. Will instructors be able adapt as necessary within the systems that exist–those systems born out of Western Civilization? Probably. When and what will be lost (and need to be recovered by later generations)? Good question. Students of the breadth and depth of Western Civilization will recall that the Romans looked back to the Greeks. In succession, the Carolingians, 12th Century scholars, Renaissance Europeans and Enlightened thinkers all looked back to the Greeks and Romans following a decline in such interest and remembrance. Enlightened thinkers looked back to the Renaissance, as well. So, perhaps we are due for another flourishing in the long history of ideas from our extensive heritage.